Nicotine Intoxication: A Danger for Pets of Smokers

March 19, 2015
Nicotine Poisoning

Photo: Petzine.org

This week, March 15-21, 2015, is National Poison Prevention Week. I am using this week’s blog to alert dog owners of a new toxin found in our homes – nicotine. Nicotine has been around a long time, but the new nicotine substitutes, designed to help people stop smoking, are poisoning dogs. A recent article in the press highlights the dangers of nicotine from e-cigarettes.

Sources of Nicotine
If you smoke around your pet, she will develop an increased concentration of nicotine in their blood stream, but the increases will not reach toxic levels. Ingestion of an e-cigarette or the super concentrated nicotine liquid used to refill the e-cigarette can cause serious and even fatal toxicity. Due to their indiscriminate eating behavior, dogs may help themselves to nicotine-containing gum or candies from your bag or backpack. Another source of nicotine toxicity is discarded nicotine patches snatched from the bathroom trash basket. Cats can also develop nicotine toxicity, but are more likely to find a discarded patch inadvertently stuck to their fur after you have removed it from your skin. Cats will ingest the nicotine while trying to remove the sticky patch by grooming.

Signs of Nicotine Toxicity
If your pet ingests one of these nicotine products, she will show signs in less than an hour and possibly in minutes if the dose is high. Common clinical signs include: vomiting, diarrhea, agitation, elevations in heart and respiration rate, depression, tremors, ataxia, weakness, seizures, blue gums, coma, and cardiac arrest. Just one e-cigarette cartridge can make a big dog really sick and can be lethal in a small dog.

Prevent Pet Poisoning


Dogs Get Cirrhosis? Cats Get Lung Cancer?

April 9, 2014

cat and dogFrom a medical perspective, we are not that different from our pets. Humans, dogs and cats have many diseases in common and the treatments for these diseases are often strikingly similar. Diabetes in pets is treated with a special diet and insulin injections; radioactive iodine therapy is used to treat feline hyperthyroidism; and dogs with heart disease receive diuretics (water pills) and ACE inhibitors. Despite these similarities, disease in our pets is not always the same as it is in humans.

Dogs Get Cirrhosis?
In people, cirrhosis of the liver is most often associated with alcoholism, or hepatitis virus infection. Since dogs don’t drink (or they shouldn’t) and the hepatitis virus is a human virus which does not infect dogs, how do dogs get cirrhosis? The diagnosis of cirrhosis does not imply a cause and the cause in dogs differs from humans. Cirrhosis is a liver disorder in which the liver loses its normal structure and function as a result of chronic inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, causes replacement of normal liver cells with scar tissue and destroying their function. If enough of the liver is damaged, dogs show signs of liver failure: jaundice, accumulation of abdominal fluid (ascites) and a bleeding tendency. Labrador Retrievers, Cocker Spaniels and West Highland White Terriers are breeds with an increased risk for developing liver inflammation and cirrhosis. The inciting cause of the inflammation in dogs remains a mystery.

Lung Cancer in Nonsmokers?
The number one cause of lung cancer in humans is cigarette smoking. Since pets don’t smoke, why do they get lung cancer? Veterinarians don’t know exactly. Studies evaluating the impact of the home environment on dogs with lung cancer did not find an association with either living in an urban or a rural environment. We know secondhand smoke affects pets, increasing their risk of lymphoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, but secondhand smoke has not yet been linked to lung cancer in dogs and cats. If you smoke, don’t do so near your pet; better yet, quit.

But What About Heart Attacks?
Heart attacks, a leading cause of sudden death in the United States, occur when the blood flow to the heart is abruptly blocked. Most heart attacks are the result of high cholesterol and blockage of the coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart muscle. Dogs and cats do not develop coronary artery disease as a result of high cholesterol, and thus do not have heart attacks like their human companions. However, since heart attacks often cause sudden death, grieving families frequently blame a heart attack when their pet dies unexpectedly. Heart disease in pets can be a cause of sudden death due to abnormal heart rhythms, ruptured heart valves and bleeding tumors of the heart.

To read more on disease affecting pets and people, read some of our previous blog posts.


The Great American Smokeout is for Pets Too!

November 16, 2011

Second-hand smoke is bad for the entire family, including pets.

Thursday, November 17 marks this year’s Great American Smokeout. Since 1997, this event has been sponsored by the American Cancer Society to encourage Americans to stop smoking. Reducing illness, disability and death related to tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure is one of the objectives of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. According to the CDC, an estimated 46.6 million Americans were smokers in 2009.

This number represents 20% of the United States population. I think everyone would agree that eliminating smoking in the United States is a worthy goal since tobacco-related illness is the cause of 443,000 deaths annually in the USA. Not accounted for in these statistics are those family members affected by second-hand smoke: adult non-smokers, children and, yes, the family pets.

Pets suffer from second-hand smoke
Studies from the United States, Brazil and Scotland demonstrate the impact of smoking on pets worldwide. Dogs and cats absorb measurable amounts of nicotine metabolites into their bodies when they live in a home with smokers. The more smokers and smoking in the household, the higher the levels of nicotine metabolites found in the family pets. Not only can the metabolites be measured, but if the lungs themselves are tested, deposition of carbon material, a byproduct of smoking, can bee seen.

Increased disease risk
Research has shown disease occurs in pets as a result of their exposure to tobacco smoke.

A recent study of dogs with a cough lasting greater than two months suggests dogs living in a household with a smoker are more likely to have a cough, but further research is necessary. Oral squamous cell carcinoma, a deadly tumor in the cat, has been associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

The most common tumor in cats is lymphoma and the risk of developing lymphoma is tripled in cats living in a smoking household.

In dogs, environmental tobacco exposure increases the risk of nasal cancer and lung cancer.

I hope I have convinced you to quit smoking today, and keep your whole family healthy. Remember, the Great American Smokeout is for pets too!

________________________________________________________

This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


%d bloggers like this: