The Spleen: Do Dogs and Cats Really Need One?

August 29, 2011

Some weeks seem to have a medical theme. For me, this week’s theme is the spleen or, more accurately, the absence of one as I wrote earlier this week about the case of Walker. Many of my patients this week have had their spleen surgically removed, a procedure called a splenectomy.

The spleen is a dark red organ which resides in the abdomen and is loosely attached to the border of the stomach by a thin veil of tissue and blood vessels.

Outlined is a very large, but smooth spleen in a cat. This is due to a mast cell tumor.

In most pets, the spleen is about as long as their forearm. It functions as part of the immune system, helping the body to fight off infections and removing aged, non-functioning red blood cells from circulation. Neither dogs nor cats suffer long-term effects from the lack of a spleen, which is different than in humans. Humans without a spleen need to take special precautions to protect themselves from a serious infection.

Veterinarians don’t know the cause, but several different disorders affect the spleen and disturb its normal function. Some disorders require a splenectomy as part of the treatment.

The loose attachment of the spleen to the stomach can sometimes result in the need for an emergency splenectomy in a dog if the spleen twists around itself and blood flow to the organ is blocked. The lack of blood supply makes the dog acutely ill, and on examination the ER veterinarian will feel a very enlarged spleen. The cause of this disorder is unknown, but surgery is curative.

One of the normal functions of a spleen is to remove old red blood cells. In cats with an unusual and as of yet unexplained disease, red blood cells are cleared at a more rapid rate than normal, resulting in anemia and an enormously enlarged spleen. In this disease, known as increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, removal of the spleen benefits the cat by improving the anemia.

Outlined is a very large, but irregular spleen in a dog. This is due to hemophagocytic histocytic sarcoma.

Because dogs and cats tolerate removal of their spleens so well, splenectomy is a common treatment for tumors of the spleen. In dogs, the most common tumor of the spleen is hemangiosarcoma.

The x-ray of a dog’s abdomen (shown below) is typical of a dog with a rare splenic tumor called hemophagocytic histocytic sarcoma. The x-ray of a cat’s abdomen shows an enlarged spleen due to mast cell tumor, the most common spleen tumor in the cat.

Although removal of an organ is medically serious, a splenectomy often results in a dramatic improvement in a pet’s quality of life without long-term negative consequences.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Hemangiosarcoma: A Common Tumor of the Spleen

August 25, 2011

The Animal Medical Center’s ER struggled to save Walker last week. Walker was an apparently healthy, 10-year-old German shepherd. He collapsed at home and was rushed to the ER. Examination by the ER staff was quickly focused on a triad of abnormalities – anemia, abdominal distension and shock. These findings immediately suggested internal hemorrhage from a tumor of the spleen common to German shepherds called hemangiosarcoma.

Hemangiosarcoma is a tumor arising from blood vessels. Unlike lymphoma, which is common in both humans and pets, hemangiosarcoma is not a human cancer. Walker’s tumor developed in his spleen, but the right side of the heart and skin are other common locations for hemangiosarcoma in the dog. Occasionally it develops in an unusual location like the eye, prostate, bone, retroperitoneal space (an area outside the abdomen but inside the body, near the kidneys). Almost any breed of dog can develop hemangiosarcoma. Most large breed dogs are at risk for this deadly tumor, including German shepherds like Walker, Golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers and schnauzers. Cats are affected by hemangiosarcoma, but it typically occurs in the skin and rarely occurs in the spleen. For those with large animals in their lives, horses and sheep also develop hemangiosarcoma.

The acute collapse Walker’s owner observed is a common sign of hemangiosarcoma. The tumor bleeds easily resulting in anemia and weakness. Sometimes, if the bleeding is only slight, the signs are more subtle – weakness followed by normal energy or difficulty jumping into the car or onto the sofa. If hemangiosarcoma occurs in the heart, it may block the heart from pumping blood, causing collapse.

Veterinarians do not know what causes hemangiosarcoma. Because we don’t know what causes it, we can only treat the tumor, not prevent its occurrence. The emergency surgeon often handles the first part of treatment, splenectomy.

The spleen is removed to stop the internal hemorrhage and also test the spleen for malignancy. Similarly skin tumors can be removed with surgery, but tumors of the right side of the heart are not so easily removed. In some cases, treatment stops there, but in other cases, dog or cat owners elect follow-up chemotherapy. Chemotherapy has been shown to prolong survival compared to dogs treated with surgery alone, but virtually all dogs relapse.

Walker’s family wanted to give him every chance and he has just gotten his first treatment. I am happy to report he has had no reaction and we will keep our fingers crossed.

Some of you may be wondering what the impact of removal of the spleen will have on Walker. I’ll address your question in my next post.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Managing your Pet’s Medications: The Importance of Compliance

August 22, 2011

On a daily basis, the veterinarians at The Animal Medical Center prescribe pills, capsules and tablets to cure, control and prevent diseases. We have pockets full of prescribing information, access dosing online and carefully follow guidelines to use medications safely and wisely.

Correct prescribing by the veterinarian is critical to medication success, but the other half, administering medications as prescribed is equally important. Pet owners, upset by the illness of their pet often misunderstand directions or adjust medication dosing without consulting their pet’s veterinary healthcare team. If you think no one would do this, here is summary of this week’s medication conversations.

Becky
Poor Becky had major dental surgery this week, including eight extractions and resulting in a prescription for pain medications. Becky, a dachshund, belongs to an employee of The AMC and I stopped by her office the next day to check on the dog. It just happened to be medication time and Becky’s owner was worried Becky was painful (highly likely given eight extractions) and she though she would give only half the prescribed dose of pain medications. I reassured her the amount prescribed had been carefully calculated for Becky’s size and pain level and that the entire dose should be given.

Montana
Montana is getting chemotherapy and also some antinausea pills. When I reviewed his prescriptions, his owner reported she was giving half a pill twice daily rather than one pill once daily. She thought the antinausea effect would last longer if she gave the pill more often. The problem with this logic is the antinausea medicine stays around a long time, hence the once a day dosing recommended by the manufacturer. By giving half a dose, Montana may not have gotten a high enough level of antinausea medicine in the bloodstream to have a full effect.

Harvey
Finally, there’s Harvey and his chemo pills. He started a new regimen and I called a couple days later to see how it was going. Harvey felt great. I should have listened to my inner doctor voice saying, “Hmm, seems too good to be true.” Turns out his owner made an honest mistake, misread the label and was giving only one pill instead of two. Now he is on the correct dosage and is feeling better than ever since his tumor is shrinking.

Medication Pointers

  • Read the label. Read it again and if you have questions, call your veterinarian’s office.
  • Give the medication as prescribed on the label. Don’t adjust the amount, frequency or duration of administration without talking to your veterinarian.
  • If you are having trouble administering medications, stop by your veterinarian’s office for a lesson in administration.
  • If the medication schedule does not fit with your schedule, ask your veterinarian if there is an alternative drug with a different schedule.
  • If your pet won’t take a pill, ask if the medication comes in a liquid or can be formulated into a liquid to ease administration.
  • If you think your pet is having a bad reaction to the medication, stop the medication and call your veterinarian immediately. For after hours trips to the animal ER, be sure to take all the medications with you and show them to the ER staff.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Visionary Leaves His Imprint in Veterinary ICUs

August 18, 2011

Dog in oxygen cage in AMC’s ICU. Plexiglas door provides total visibility for monitoring while maintaining oxygen-rich environment for patient.

The Washington Post has an interesting obituary online. The obituary of Dr. Max Harry Weil credits this physician with helping to invent the intensive care unit (ICU) in human hospitals. I wonder if he would be surprised to know his work is visible in the intensive care unit at The Animal Medical Center and many other large veterinary hospitals as well?

Dr. Weil’s precursor to the ICU we know today was a “shock ward” with four beds in 1958. The AMC’s ICU has 19 “beds” and manages pets in shock from serious trauma, such as automobile accidents, on a daily basis.

Dr. Weil’s vision was for all the necessary equipment and expertise required by seriously ill patients to be housed together in a single location. He coined the term “critical care” to describe both the hospital space and the expertise. To meet the needs of his critically ill patients, he developed the rolling “crash cart” holding the equipment and drugs necessary for managing cardiac arrest. The AMC has multiple crash carts throughout the hospital so one is always near a pet in need.

Contents of just one drawer in an AMC crash cart.

In the AMC’s ICU, there is a small “stat lab” where we measure biological parameters which can change on a minute to minute basis. This stat lab allows the ICU staff to measure blood oxygen levels, red blood cell counts, liver and kidney function, blood sugar and the blood’s ability to clot 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Ready access to monitoring allows the critical care staff to change treatments in response to changes in the pet’s condition.

Stat lab in AMC’s ICU.

In keeping with Dr. Weil’s vision of critical care, the AMC ICU also includes a highly trained staff specializing in the care of critically ill patients. Veterinarians who are specialists in the management of critically ill patients are board certified by the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care.

We also have nurses, called licensed veterinary technicians, who are certified by the North American Veterinary Technician Academy in emergency and critical care.

Pets and veterinarians everywhere owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Max Harry Weil for his vision of critical care, which helps us to take better care of our patients every day.

Photos: Ann Hohenhaus, DVM

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


DNA Testing for Your Pet: Not Just for Criminals!

August 15, 2011

DNA testing appears daily in the news. The OJ Simpson trial in 1995 made DNA testing famous and the technology continues to help juries determine innocence or guilt. Veterinarians use DNA testing for both serious medical conditions and to determine dog heritage. One apartment complex in New Hampshire is using DNA testing to identify the dogs and dog owners guilty of violating pooper scooper laws!

Animal Medical Center veterinarians use DNA testing to diagnose a variety of diseases. Take veterinary internal medicine specialists for example. Some members of the Cavalier King Charles spaniel breed have a lower platelet count than most other dogs. Platelets are little blood clotting cells, but even with a lower number than usual, the Cavis do not have excessive bleeding. However, the number of platelets in these dogs is low enough to make the veterinarian think a diagnostic investigation is necessary. Since the low platelet count is inherited in this breed, veterinary researchers at Auburn University developed a DNA test to identify this abnormality and avoid the need for a costly medical evaluation of a low platelet count.

Veterinarians also use DNA testing to diagnose infectious diseases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifies a minute piece of DNA from an infectious agent present in the bloodstream to confirm the presence of the organism as the cause of an illness. After treatment, PCR can be used to confirm eradication of the infectious agent.

Oncologists use DNA testing to confirm a cancer diagnosis when the biopsy result is unclear. Veterinary researchers have identified genetic abnormalities in several types of canine and feline cancers. Testing for the presence of these abnormalities can help oncologists identify the tumor type and also help them choose the best treatment for your pet.

A fun use of DNA testing is to determine the genetic heritage of your mixed breed dog. Several companies offer this test.

The tests vary as to the required sample for testing — some require a blood sample obtained by your veterinarian; other tests use cells from the inside of the cheek collected with a special swab. Just like humans are interested in their family background, dog owners are interested in their dog’s background.

There may also be medical applications. If you know your dog is a high percentage of a particular breed of dog, you may monitor for diseases known to affect that breed. Knowing you dog’s heritage may help explain the behavior traits he exhibits, like the excellent swimming skills of a Labrador retriever or herding behaviors typical in Border collies.

So don’t worry if your veterinarian recommends a DNA test for your pet. It is not likely for an episode of CSI.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


On the Road Again: Safety Restraints for Car-Traveling Pets

August 11, 2011

According to the American Automobile Association, 30.9 million Americans will drive to their vacation destinations this summer. Sixty-one percent of pet owners take their pets on vacation. If you do the math, that equals nearly 19 million car-traveling pets. No wonder pet seat belts for dogs were the topic of a recent article in the Wall Street Journal.

Proper restraint of your pet while riding the in the car is an important safety consideration for both you and your pet. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) lists unrestrained pets as a driving distraction. Proper restraint keeps your mind focused on the road, keeps the pet from becoming an injury-causing projectile or from becoming injured in the case of an accident. Keeping your pet restrained while you are traveling also keeps your pet inside the car when you roll down the windows to pay a toll or ask for directions.

If you travel in the car with your cat, a carrier will keep your cat from roaming about, distracting you from driving. You should put a seat belt though the handle or straps to keep the carrier immobile during an accident. The cat carrier will only keep your cat safe if you can get the cat into the carrier. The minute a cat spies the carrier coming up from the basement or out of the closet they make a beeline underneath the middle of your king-sized bed. Once you flush them out of their hiding place, the most placid pussy cat becomes a man-eating lion. The folks at the Catalyst Council Channel on YouTube offer several videos to help cat owners train their cat to like getting into its carrier and traveling in the car.

When you buy a car or a child safety seat, you rely on data from crash tests to evaluate the quality of the product you intend to buy. The NHTSA website does not have information about pet restraint systems and I could not find any guidelines for evaluation of pet safety restraints. IMMI designs, tests and manufacturers vehicle safety systems. Their dog product is manufactured using seatbelt materials and they have video showing how it functions during crash testing using a doggie crash test dummy.

Since there appears not to be criteria for pet seat belts, here is what I would look for:

  1. Device has metal hooks, latches and loops Plastic will not be strong enough if you and your pet are in an accident.
  2. Device attaches to the car’s seat belt or the child safety restraint anchor located in the junction between the back and seat cushions. A device that attaches to the hooks for hanging clothes is not strong enough to hold up during a crash.
  3. Device fits your pet — not too tight and not too loose. Most systems I looked at online came in various sizes.
  4. Device keeps your pet in the back seat where they are safer.

Additional car travel resources include:

  • The American Automobile Association offers tips, product reviews and a pet travel book to its members.
  • Bark BuckleUp offers a free pet safety kit on their website to serve as a reminder to first responders about a possible pet in your car.

Click here for additional information about driving with pets.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Will that be One Lump or Two? A Guide to Lumps on Your Dog

August 4, 2011

My telephone and email have been ringing and pinging this week with questions about lumps on dogs.

Lump near the tail base of a standard poodle.

The subject line of the first email said “Lump on Rump” which sounded like a line from an oncology book written by Dr. Seuss. When I examined the dog, I found a firm mass below the skin just to the right of the tail. Since this was a standard poodle, I suspected a sebaceous cyst, a common lump in this breed. But since you can never determine a benign or malignant lump by observation, I performed a fine needle aspiration using the same size needle I would use to administer a vaccination. Within 24 hours the laboratory confirmed my diagnosis. The worried owners were relieved, especially since no surgery was required for this benign lesion.

Small pea sized lump on the shoulder of a dog

The second call was from an AMC colleague who has just adopted a foster dog. He’s been vaccinated, groomed and has a spiffy new collar. His owner was petting him and found a lump over his right shoulder. The combination of the recent vaccination and the location of the lump (right where he would have been vaccinated for distemper/parvovirus) made me think it was a small-localized vaccine reaction. Since this dog comes to AMC most days, we carefully measured it on the first day and again a week later and it was already getting smaller. I will continue to monitor this lump but suspect it will go away in another couple of weeks.

The third call was from a friend of mine who is a veterinarian. She had found a lump on her own dog and performed an aspiration which diagnosed a mast cell tumor.

Because these tumors sometimes require specialist level care, she wanted input from the AMC about how best to approach this tumor surgically and input from me regarding an potential chemotherapy.

If you have a lumpy dog, have each lump evaluated by your veterinarian. I keep a line drawing of a dog’s body in each dog’s medical record. On the drawing I sketch the lump, record the size based on measurements and indicate the date aspiration cytology was performed. This process makes short work of determining if this is a new lump or not.

If your veterinarian recommends aspiration cytology or a biopsy, go for it. Without additional information, it is impossible for me or any veterinarian, to give an owner bad news or good news about the lump on their dog.

Don’t hesitate to seek the opinion of a specialist. A dog with a lump in a difficult location may need a advanced imaging to define the tumor location, a specially trained surgeon to successful remove a lump or a cancer specialist to provide follow up chemotherapy.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Animal Hoarding: How Many Pets are Too Many?

August 2, 2011

When most people think of animal hoarding, they think of the extreme cases shown on Animal Planet’s Confessions: Animal Hoarding, or similar programs on A&E and Discovery networks. Others think of the crazy, elderly cat lady, exemplified by Arabella Figg, the Squib cat dealer who served as Harry Potter’s occasional babysitter on Wisteria Walk. Despite such stereotypical descriptions of animal hoarders, no particular group of people is at risk for the disorder. All types of people and multiple species of animals, not just dogs and cats, can be involved in hoarding.

Is the clinic client with 10 cats a hoarder?

The answer is not as simple as the question seems. If the 10 cat owner is able to provide a clean, disease-free home environment, preventive healthcare, and emergency services for the 10 cats, AND is able provide themselves with food, clothing, a clean home and pay his bills, he is probably not an animal hoarder. But, if he is behind in his rent, only brings in sick cats in poor physical condition and denies the cat has a serious medical problem, the veterinarian may be dealing with an animal hoarder.

What are some of the risks for animals, animal hoarders or for those living in a community with a hoarder?

Because animals that are hoarded do not have adequate food, medical care and hygiene, hoarding is considered to be a form of animal cruelty. In addition to neglecting their animals, hoarders often neglect themselves or other family members such as children and the elderly. The squalid conditions found in hoarding situations affect not only the animal hoarder and the animals, but may hurt the community as well. There is an increased risk of fire, poor air quality and transmission of infectious disease from sick animals to humans.

If you suspect someone is an animal hoarder, what can you do?

  • Call your local humane law enforcement organization. If you are not sure who is in your jurisdiction, ask your veterinarian.
  • Animal hoarding is not just an animal problem; it is a human one as well. Management of a hoarding situation includes contacting a social services organization to help the hoarder understand.
  • Support only legitimate animal rescue groups. Don’t confuse an animal hoarder with not–for-profit rescue groups, shelters or animal sanctuaries. Volunteer or give money to documented 501(c)(3) corporations with a reputation for providing high quality animal care.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit http://www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Pet Food Pantries

July 28, 2011

Last Sunday, I was at St. Bartholomew’s Church in New York City attending a discussion of its Crossroads Community Services Program which supports breakfast for 150-200 New Yorkers three days a week, an overnight shelter and a food pantry. During the question and answer period, an audience member asked the program director, “Where is there a pet food pantry?” and I will admit I wasn’t sure. But given the high unemployment data out last week and the dismal job reports in the news, I knew there were still families in need. Since pets are family, I decided to investigate pet food pantries.

In New York City, the Mayor’s Alliance for NYC’s Animals is a coalition of non-profit shelters and rescue groups saving the lives of adoptable pets in New York City. Their website lists three groups helping to provide needy New York City pets with food and supplies: Animal Relief Fund, Prince Chunk Foundation and the Food Bank for New York City.

The Food Bank for New York City is heavily involved in providing meals for hungry pets and has presence in all five boroughs. It is just one beneficiary of the PETCO Foundation’s “We Are Family” program. PETCO collects the food and cat litter and their partners use their human food pantries as the distribution site.

This website gives a state by state list of the PETCO stores collecting food and cat litter for pets in need and their food pantry partners. In Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island, We Are Family works in partnership with Long Island Cares. The Food Bank for New York City’s West Harlem location has recently received a large donation of pet food from the Iams Company and VCA Charities Pet Program. Registered food pantry members will receive free pet food and some may also receive coupons for pet care from VCA.

Another local New York City organization providing pet food is the Animal Relief Fund (ARF). They are members of the Mayor’s Alliance for NYC’s Animals and collect pet food and distribute it through a large number of local human food pantries in the five boroughs and on Long Island via Long Island Cares.

Not exactly a food pantry, but an important provider of food to those in need is Meals On Wheels. Meals On Wheels provides not only food for the home-bound elderly, but companionship as well. Some local Meals On Wheels organizations have a pet feeding program in addition to their senior citizen feeding program. We All Love Our Pets (WALOP) delivers nutritional pet meals along with nutritious human meals. By helping an elderly person feed his/her pet, the senior citizen and their pet can maintain the human companion animal bond critical to the senior’s emotional and physical health.

So how can animal lovers help pets in need?

  1. Donate money to your local pet food pantry
  2. Donate pet food or cat litter to an organization that partners with a human food pantry for distribution.
  3. Volunteer for an organization providing meals to the whole family.
  4. Start a pet food pantry.

These are only a few ideas. I am sure you readers have many others. Tell us some ideas you may have to help the needy feed their pets.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Doggy Dash and Distemper

July 25, 2011

Dr. Nate Lam and his dog, Cali

On Sunday, August 7, The Animal Medical Center Doggy Dash will give man (or woman) and his or her best friend the chance to compete in tandem over a 5-mile run course in New York City’s Central Park.

The AMC’s Doggy Dash is part of the 11th Annual Nautica NYC Triathlon and one of The AMC’s own — Dr. Nate Lam — will be participating in the triathlon to raise money, in part, for The AMC’s Buddy Fund for Cancer Care.

Dogs in the Dash must be healthy and current on vaccinations. One Doggy Dash participant contacted The AMC asking what the “D” in DHPP vaccine was so he could find out if his dog had been properly vaccinated. This question gives me an opportunity to write about canine distemper – the “D” in DHPP.

Before the distemper vaccine was developed in the 1950s, canine distemper caused serious illness and could wipe out an entire neighborhood’s dog population. Today, distemper in dogs can easily be prevented, and vaccination against distemper is considered a “core” vaccination for dogs. Distemper vaccine is commonly administered in a combination vaccine often called DA2PP or DHPP for distemper, adenovirus 2 (also called canine infectious hepatitis), parainfluenza and parvovirus. Rabies vaccination is the other core canine vaccine. Non-core vaccines include bordetella (kennel cough), canine influenza, Lyme disease, leptospirosis and corona virus. Vaccination guidelines recommend non-core vaccines be administered only to dogs with risk factors for the disease.

The name canine distemper is a bit misleading. The disease does not cause an ill temperament in an infected dog. The word comes from a Middle English word meaning to upset the balance of the humors. Medieval theories of medicine proposed the body was composed of four substances called humors and when the humors were out of alignment, illness occurred. The distemper virus infects a wide variety of animals including the black-footed ferret, Tasmanian tiger, African wild dog and lions. Distemper virus cannot infect humans but genetically it is closely related to the measles virus.

Distemper has several clinical manifestations. The initial clinical signs are fever, vomiting and nasal or ocular discharge. These might go away without treatment, or could progress to systemic illness such as pneumonia. Neurological signs such as seizures may accompany the illness, or may occur months later. Dogs may also develop thickened footpads or nasal planum (the hairless part of their nose) giving the disease its colloquial name, hardpad disease. Years after their initial infection, old dogs may develop “old dog encephalitis” in which the brain becomes inflamed from chronic distemper virus infection. Canine distemper virus can even affect the teeth. Puppies infected before their permanent teeth develop have a decreased amount of enamel covering their teeth.

Distemper virus infection is easily prevented by vaccination. Following a puppy series of shots, your veterinarian will discuss the frequency of distemper vaccination that is appropriate for your dog during its annual physical examination.

For more information about other diseases veterinarians commonly prevent with vaccinations, click on the following links:

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Fracture Repair in Dogs and Cats

July 21, 2011

A couple of weeks ago I was interviewed by a reporter about pet owner administered first aid for dogs and cats when an injury may have resulted in a fractured bone. The article has good information for pet owners to read now in preparation for a potential emergency in the future. This blog post will pick up where that article left off and explain the fracture repair techniques used by veterinary surgeons The Animal Medical Center.

For the veterinarian, the critical piece of successful fracture management is to immobilize the fracture. This can be accomplished using one of several different methods. For some fractures, more than one method might be appropriate and for others there may be only one solution to fix the broken bone. All x-rays were taken by the AMC’s Diagnostic Imaging Service.

For centuries, fractures have been treated by immobilization using casts or splints. These days the old style plaster of Paris cast has been replaced in human medicine by plastic or fiberglass. In animals we tend to use splints of fiberglass or plastic for repair of simple fractures where the bones do not need realignment. The arrows in the photo to the right point to two toe fractures in a young dog which healed when the paw was placed in a splint.

Optimal healing of a fracture requires the joints above and below the fracture be immobilized. When the fracture occurs in a location where these joints cannot be adequately immobilized by an external bandage or cast, the fracture must be repaired internally via a surgical procedure. The x-ray to the left shows the use of two small pins in the front of the hind leg bone known as the tibia.

If a bone is fractured in multiple places or spirals along the length of a bone, a simple pin will not provide enough support to immobilize the fracture and allow healing. Shown below are before and after x-rays of a fractured arm (radius and ulna) in a dog. Notice the splint on the before films. The AMC’s Emergency Service placed the splint to immobilize the fracture until surgery could be performed. The AMC surgeons chose to repair the leg with a plate and screws since both bones of the leg were broken.

As research discovers more about fracture healing, methods of repair are changing. When possible, minimally invasive procedures are chosen as large invasive surgeries disturb the covering of the bone (periosteum), the blood clot at the fracture site and the muscles which provide the blood supply to the fracture. The AMC surgeons are using a new technique called MIPO (minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis) or percutaneous plating. This method of fracture stabilization, involves application of a bone plate through small skin incisions on either end of the fracture site. The fracture is aligned and the plate and screws are placed using guidance from a special intraoperative x-ray machine. Not all fractures are amenable to MIPO.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit http://www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.

Images: AMC Diagnostic Imaging Department


National Pet Fire Safety Day

July 18, 2011

Last Friday, July 15, 2011, was National Pet Fire Safety Day. When we hear about pets and fires in the home, we often think of the dog who awakens his owner, saving lives with a warning bark about a fire in the house.

But pets are also the victims of fire. According to Pet Safety Alert, 40,000 pets are killed in fires annually, most of them in residential fires.

Every year, The Animal Medical Center provides care to pets who have been trapped in burning buildings and rescued by New York’s bravest, our friends at the NYC Fire Department.

As a pet lover, you can take action to prevent pet-related fires and to protect your pet if there is a fire.

To help firefighters find all of your pets, the folks at ADT Home Security Systems offer a free window cling to alert firefighters to the presence of pets in the home. You can request one through their website.

Firefighters want to help pets suffering from smoke inhalation, but the oxygen masks designed for humans are not shaped to fit a pet’s nose. If you are feeling philanthropic, donate a pet oxygen mask to your local firefighting team.

Pet proofing your home can help to prevent a catastrophic fire. Candles are a huge danger for pets. A wagging tail can knock a candle off the coffee table and into a pile of flammable papers. My own cat, who had a big puffy tail, swished it over a lit candle and nearly went up in flames! Space heaters and backyard grills present a hazard, as they can easily be knocked over by a pet and start a fire.

To protect the entire family, make sure your smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors have their batteries changed twice a year. A good time to change the batteries is when you change the clocks for daylight savings time in the spring and fall.

Like people, pets can suffer from carbon monoxide poisoning. If everyone in the family is ill and your pet is exhibiting the following signs, see your veterinarian and mention you are concerned about carbon monoxide poisoning.

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Cough
  • Loss of exercise stamina
  • Disturbances in gait

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit http://www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.

Photo: iStockphoto


The Pen Cap May Be Mightier than the Sword…

July 15, 2011

But it can’t beat a bronchoscope!

Barcley

One thing I love about pets is their unpredictability. You just can never guess what they will do next. Here’s the story of Barcley, the French bulldog and the nearly fatal pen cap.

The beginning seemed innocent enough: a dog playing with a bright blue highlighter pen. Suddenly, he couldn’t breathe and his owners rushed him to The Animal Medical Center. Quick administration of oxygen and a sedative by the ER staff seemed to alleviate the breathing problem enough to allow a chest x-ray to be taken.

No one would have predicted the x-ray would show Barcley’s windpipe contained what looked like the cap of the bright blue highlighter!

Barcley’s chest x-ray. Arrows point to outline of pen cap in his windpipe.

The ER staff had to think quickly and cleverly. Barcley needed anesthesia and a bronchoscope to remove the highlighter pen cap, but the standard anesthetic plan of placing a breathing tube into the windpipe was out of the question; it was already full of the highlighter cap. To further complicate matters, Barcley is a brachycephalic (short nosed) dog, a type of dog known to have a greater risk of anesthetic complications.

Dr. Stacy Burdick of The AMC’s Internal Medicine Service was called in at 1:30 am to perform the procedure which took 20 minutes, but seemed like a lifetime. She placed a small rubber tube in the windpipe to deliver oxygen and administered an injectable anesthetic agent into Barcley’s vein. Dr. Burdick cautiously advanced the bronchoscope down Barcley’s windpipe. She was worried the windpipe could have been damaged as the cap went down, or worse, the windpipe could tear when she pulled it back up.

Pen cap in windpipe

On the right, you can see what Dr. Burdick saw when the cap came into view. The cap blocked the entire lumen of the windpipe. Knowing she had to work quickly to restore the delivery of oxygen to the lungs, she passed a special grabber device through the bronchoscope, grabbed the cap and gently pulled it gently out through the mouth as she pulled out the bronchoscope.

Barcley’s life was saved from the pen cap by the mighty bronchoscope and the skilled Dr. Burdick.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit http://www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Dogs and Cats as Diana and Orion, the Hunters

July 13, 2011

Photo: Hemera

Pet owners believe their well-fed, or more likely overfed, dog or cat should have no reason to hunt, but lately it seems my patients are on a hunting spree.

Most cat owners who allow their cats outside, become accustomed to freshly killed gifts of mice and other small rodents carefully placed as an offering on the back stoop. But this week the take has been much more substantial.

Take Francie, for example, a special needs Cavalier King Charles Spaniel on anti-seizure medication. Twice last week she captured an unidentifiable furry creature and dragged it in through the doggie door. One unfortunate victim was hauled into Francie’s crate and the other left with pride in the middle of the kitchen floor. Franice’s family was outwardly distressed over her behavior, but the diminutive “Diana” seemed pleased with her hunting success.

Dixie and Mabel, a pair of Labradors, have not been hunting because they are, of course retrievers! To their owners’ initial horror, they were about to retrieve what appeared to be a dead possum, when the possum stopped “playing possum” and safely scampered back into the woods.

The Orion of the group is Willie, a handsome black Standard Poodle. He was out romping in his yard when a fawn strolled by. He tackled the fawn and was immediately tackled by his owners, who saved the fawn and had it safely transferred to the care of a wildlife rehabilitator.

I can share all these stories with you because the pet owners called me; not to brag, but out of concern for their pet’s health. Most were concerned about the potential for rabies transmission from wildlife. This is a real concern for pet owners and just one very good reason for having your pet vaccinated for rabies. Rabies vaccines are very effective and rabies is very uncommon in vaccinated dogs and cats.

Another concern is for parasite which can be carried by wildlife and transmitted to your dog or cat. The Dianas and Orions need annual fecal examinations and routine year round parasite prevention as recommended by the Companion Animal Parasite Council.

These pet owners also called wondering how to handle injured wildlife. First, you should not attempt to touch or move injured wildlife as you may be bitten. In New York State, the Department of Environmental Conservation licenses wildlife rehabilitators who can provide assistance and care for injured wildlife. There is also a FAQ page with great information about wildlife in your yard.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Everything Old is New Again: Plague and Leprosy

July 7, 2011

Nine banded armadillo, which can carry leprosy, seen in Brooklyn’s DUMBO neighborhood at modern:ANTHOLOGY.

Last week there were two very interesting stories in the news about the intersection between people and animals. Both reported on diseases we rarely hear about anymore: plague and leprosy.

Leprosy is the older disease and has been reported since Biblical times. The first reported epidemic of plague occurred somewhat later, in the 6th or 7th century. Bubonic plague, or the Black Death, was the scourge of the Middle Ages.

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yesinia pestis. The usual source of Y. pestis is the rat flea, but hunting pets can contract the plague from eating infected rodents or rabbits. Even though Y. pestis is predominantly found in California, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada, cases can be seen throughout the country if a human or pet travels to one of these areas and contracts the disease before they return home. An infected pet can, in turn, infect humans. The possibility of plague transmission is one reason prairie dogs may not make the best pets.

The name bubonic comes from the word bubo, which is a fancy word for enlarged lymph node. Wikipedia shows an illumination from a medieval Bible of sinners afflicted with buboes.

Both humans and pets with bubonic plague have enlarged lymph nodes, which are painful. Fever, malaise and non–specific flu-like symptoms are typical for plague in both humans and pets. Although last week’s plague case occurred in a dog, in general, cats are more susceptible to plague than dogs.

Leprosy was in the news too; not because of a sick dog or cat, but because of armadillos. Those prehistoric-looking armored mammals carry the leprosy bacteria, Mycobacterium leprae. Most leprosy cases occur outside the United States, but cases occur in people who have not traveled outside the USA. This finding puzzled researchers until the DNA of the M. leprae was studied. Both armadillos and humans infected with M. leprae in the USA share the same unique strain of the bacteria. This bacterium is different from the strain of M. leprae found outside the USA. The New England Journal of Medicine article concluded humans can contract leprosy from infected armadillos.

To help protect yourself and your pet from contracting diseases of wildlife:

  • Keep your pet leashed or indoors to prevent contact with wild animals which can cause serious diseases.
  • Never approach, pet or handle wildlife even if they are acting friendly.
  • If your pet is sick, always tell your veterinarian where your pet has traveled and do the same when you visit your physician. It may be just the perfect clue to the diagnosis.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Summer Noise Phobias

July 5, 2011

Lovely weather, summer holidays and a relaxed atmosphere make summer everyone’s favorite season – everyone except for dogs with noise phobias. Fireworks and thunderstorms create unexpected loud noises, frightening to many dogs and cats as well. The veterinarians at The Animal Medical Center see dogs and cats injured and lost over the Fourth of July weekend as a result of their noise phobias.

Signs of noise phobia:

Destructive behavior

  • Scratching/digging at door or wall
  • Chewing
  • Loss of housebreaking

Anxious behavior

  • Clinging to owner
  • Drooling
  • Hiding, especially cats
  • Panting
  • Expressing anal glands
  • Dilated pupils

Abnormal behavior

  • Skipping meals
  • Jumping out of windows/running out of doors
  • Shaking
  • Loss of training, i.e., not responding to commands

Home Remedies
Consider trying home remedies for noise phobia. One of my patients with thunderstorm phobia calms down if her owner wipes her fur down with a dryer sheet. Dryer sheets may decrease the buildup of static electricity caused by the impending thunderstorm. I suggest the unscented ones, since dogs don’t like smelling like an ocean breeze. Anxious dogs may feel calmer during storms or fireworks if you apply a dab of lavender oil to their ear tips. The lavender oil fragrance has calming properties and is available at health food stores and on the internet.

Noise Phobia Products

  • Along the lines of the antistatic dryer sheet is the Storm Defender Cape which has a special lining to diffuse static electricity.
  • The Thundershirt is a snug fitting dog T-shirt which some of my dog owners have used for anxiety related to car rides, veterinarian visits, as well as thunderstorms.
  • An interesting product I found is dog ear muffs, but I don’t have personal experience with them.

For additional tips on managing fireworks phobia in dogs read a previous blog, “Fireworks and Your Dog.”

If you need professional help managing noise phobias in your pet, a behavioral consult with a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists can help set your dog or cat on the road to recovery.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Cat Food Myths Debunked

June 30, 2011

A few months ago I wrote about cats and “cat salad.” Since we are at the end of Adopt–a-Cat month, I hope there are many new cat owner readers who will be interested in these food myths about cats. These myths have come from conversations with my cat-owning clients at The Animal Medical Center.

All cats like fish.
Partial myth. Cats’ food preferences are strongly influenced by those of their mother. If the mother liked and ate fish, the kittens are likely to crave fish as well. But the food preferences of the finicky feline are not so simply categorized. Despite the daredevil behaviors of young cats – flying from cabinet to refrigerator and scaling bookshelves with abandon – they are not so adventurous when it comes to food. Young cats fed the same diet consistently are often reluctant to eat a different diet if one is offered to them later in life. A cat food with a “good” smell is more likely to be chosen by a finicky feline, and if your cat doesn’t find any of the food attractive based on smell, it may taste several before choosing one. One fun fact about cats’ food preferences is cats probably don’t chose food based on salty or sweet flavors since their taste buds are insensitive to salts and sugars.

Cats should have milk to drink.
This is a companion partial myth to “cats like fish.” Some cats like milk, some don’t. Most cats lack the digestive enzyme, lactase, responsible for digestion of lactose, or milk sugar. A bowl of milk may lead to an upset stomach or diarrhea in cats. This situation can be avoided by treating your cat to a bowl of low fat lactose-free milk or one of the cat milk products available at the pet store. Since treats should comprise only 10% of the daily caloric requirement, keep the amount of milk to about 1/3 of a cup, or roughly 30 calories per day for the average 8 pound cat. Cat milk products have the added advantage of supplemental taurine, an essential amino acid for cats.

Cats can be vegetarians.
This is a myth, and a dangerous one. Nutritionally speaking, cats are obligate carnivores. Everything about their physical structure says “meat eater” from their sharp pointy fangs to their short digestive tract. Veterinarians will discourage owners from preparing vegetarian or vegan foods at home for their cats. Without the input of a specialized veterinary nutritionist, homemade vegetarian and vegan diets for cats are frequently deficient in taurine, arginine, tryptophan, lysine and vitamin A. Taurine deficiency leads to heart failure and a cat fed a diet without arginine may suffer death within hours. Both taurine and arginine are found in meat.

________________________________________________________

This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Recognizing Arthritis Pain in Your Cat

June 28, 2011

When working with the Animal Medical Center veterinarians participating in our post graduate training programs, I often say, “Cats are not little dogs.” What I really mean is, a particular disease in dogs does not appear the same as the disease does in cats. For example, dogs with heart disease typically have heart failure from leaky heart valves, while cats with heart disease commonly have abnormalities of their heart muscles, not their valves. When it comes to disorders of the thyroid gland, dogs suffer from an under active thyroid and cats from an over active thyroid.

Normal hips in a cat. Arrows point to nice, smooth joint surfaces.

A pet’s behavior in response to arthritis pain is also different between cats and dogs.

Arthritis is a common cause of pain in dogs and owners of arthritic dogs are quick to point out their dog is limping. Despite the fact that x-rays show evidence of arthritis in somewhere between 15-65% of cats, limping is really uncommon in feline patients. 

Cats with arthritis suffer from weight loss, anorexia, depression, urinating outside the litter box, poor grooming and, in some cases, lameness. One of my 21-year-old feline patients had to be moved onto a single floor of the house because he was too painful to use the stairs to the basement to get to his litter box. He got a new litterbox too, which had lower sides since he couldn’t step into his old one with higher sides.

Both hips in this cat are affected by arthritis. Arrows point to roughened edges of joint.

Pain in cats is difficult for both veterinarians and cat owners to assess. From my veterinarian’s viewpoint, if I put a cat on the exam room floor in an attempt to watch it walk, it will immediately run under the desk and hide. It will definitely not limp as it rockets underneath the desk.

In a recent study evaluating pain assessment in cats by veterinary researchers in North Carolina, cat owners reported they found it difficult to identify mild pain in their cats. Cat owners believed they could correctly identify changes in their cat’s function and activity. Dog owners more readily identify how pain interferes with their dog’s activities, possibly because dogs participate more fully in family activities such as ball toss, Frisbee and hiking.

If you notice your cat moving around less, not using the litter box or showing reluctance to go up and down the stairs, see your veterinarian for an arthritis evaluation.

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This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Day at the Museum: The Animal Medical Center Sequel

June 23, 2011

The Animal Medical Center has a computer system to manage our diagnostic imaging, including x-rays, ultrasound, CT scans and MRIs. The Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) lists all the images for any given day. If you looked at the list for June 17, you would see my patient Dakota, who got a chest x-ray, Chippie, the dog who had a full series of dental x-rays, and BooBoo who had a brain MRI — a typical list for a Friday.

But reading down the list you get to Croc 1, Bird 2, Snake 3 and Ibis 4. These images come from the oldest patients ever seen at The AMC. No, not a 25 year old dog or a 30 year old cat. These 32 patients are 2,500 year old animal mummies.

CT scan of Croc1. Head left, tail right

Like many AMC patients, these animals came to The AMC across the Brooklyn Bridge into Manhattan. Unlike any other AMC patients, these patients belong to the Brooklyn Museum’s Egyptian collection.

Like all patients who come to The AMC, they came for our diagnostic expertise, utilizing our state of the art equipment. In this case, the animal mummies came to The AMC for CT scanning in our 64-slice CT scanner.

Reptile mummy in its box being placed in 64-slice CT scanner

The AMC’s 64-slice CT scanner rapidly produces high quality images. So fast, all 32 were scanned in one day as outpatients! Rapid is better for our usual patients, since the faster the scan, the shorter the anesthesia time. For the animal mummies, the high quality images are critical in helping AMC’s board certified radiologist, Dr. Anthony Fischetti, collaborate with the curators from the Brooklyn Museum to decipher the mummy’s contents. The 64-slice CT scanner can recreate three dimensional and multiplanar images of the patient. In our usual patients, we use these features to better diagnose and treat illnesses. Our colleagues at the Brooklyn Museum plan to use the reconstructed CT images to study the mummies’ contents without disrupting the intricate linen wrapping.

If our CT scanner is so fast and can scan thirty two mummies in one day, you might wonder why your AMC veterinarian wanted your pet here all day when it had a CT scan. A CT scan in one of our usual patients requires administration of a short-acting anesthetic. Obviously, an animal mummy does not require anesthesia, the associated monitoring of the heart, respiration and blood pressure and does not have to recover from anesthesia. All these differences shorten the procedure time.

Most of our usual patients have two CT scans back to back. The first scan is before and the second is after administration of a contrast agent. The contrast agent highlights abnormalities the veterinarians are hunting for, such as inflammation and tumors. Administration of contrast was not possible or necessary in the animal mummies.

This animal mummy project between The Animal Medical Center and the Brooklyn Museum will culminate in an exhibition in 2013, so mark your calendars now!

________________________________________________________

This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


Take Your Dog to Work Day

June 20, 2011

Becky (L) & Percy (R) hardly working at The AMC

Friday, June 24th, is Take Your Dog to Work Day. Employees of The Animal Medical Center (AMC) are lucky since every day here is Take Your Pet to Work Day. Not surprisingly, The AMC is a pet-friendly employer.

Although most pets that come to work are dogs, we do have the occasional infant kitten or ancient cat who come to work because of special feeding and medication requirements during the day. The photo below shows Pepe avoiding work by hiding under a chair.

First celebrated in 1999, Take Your Dog to Work Day was created to celebrate the great companions dogs make and to encourage their adoption from humane societies, animal shelters and breed rescue clubs.

Pepe (available for adoption)

Companies, large and small, are recognizing the importance of pets in our social fabric. Some offer their employees pet insurance as one option in their benefits package. Inc.’s series, “Winning Workplaces,” highlights the increased worker productivity and camaraderie of workplaces where dogs are allowed.

Taryl Fultz, copywriter for Trone, Inc., a 70 person marketing firm in High Point, NC, with many pet care clients, including GREENIES® and NUTRO® says, “I absolutely [get more work done] when my sheltie is at work. He is very well behaved, but I feel better when I have him with me. I often stay later, bring my lunch those days and work through at my desk. When people/clients get tours of the office, he is always a featured stop along the way. Pets make most people smile. And can often turn a tense meeting/moment into a better one.”

I emailed with one employee of the marketing firm Moxie. Dogs are welcome at this 300+ person company, but visits must be scheduled in advance and misbehaving dogs are put on restriction. Visiting the office is not all fun and games. One Chihuahua was even pressed into service, when he was photographed wearing a wig and playing the piano for an ad campaign.

Trone, Inc. employees, from the VP for human resources to copywriters, have wonderful work stories about their pets. One 65 pound mutt works on stealing stuffed toys from other dogs, small children or co-workers’ offices. Another dog likes to work in a private space – behind the credenza — only she doesn’t quite fit and all her owner can see is the back half of a dog sticking out. Owen, a Plott hound, likes work because of the availability of GREENIES. One weekend Owen didn’t come when he was called. Finally he came running with a large mailing box where his head should have been. Owen had grabbed one of the mailing samples, which had a Greenie affixed to it. He was so excited to bring to his owner and then rip it off of the package.

If your office is going to be dog-friendly, you might want to consider establishing office etiquette guidelines. Our friends at the ASPCA have some useful suggestions.

________________________________________________________

This may also be found in the “Tales from the Pet Clinic” blog on WebMD.com.

For over a century, The Animal Medical Center has been a national leader in animal health care, known for its expertise, innovation and success in providing routine, specialty and emergency medical care for companion animals. Thanks in part to the enduring generosity of donors, The AMC is also known for its outstanding teaching, research and compassionate community funds. Please help us to continue these efforts. Send your contribution to: The Animal Medical Center, 510 East 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065. For more information, visit www.amcny.org. To make an appointment, please call 212.838.7053.


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