My Dog Bit Someone, What Should I Do?

May 20, 2015

dog biteMay 17 -23, 2015 is National Bite Prevention Week. The United States has 70 million dogs, all of them wonderful companions, but any dog can bite. Animal bites are a serious problem, affecting 4.7 million people per year, most of them children. Senior citizens are the second most common age group affected by bite injuries.

Preventing Bite Injuries
The best defense against dog bite injuries is prevention. Responsible dog owners follow these general guidelines to prevent their dog from becoming a biter:

  • Train your dog. Obedience trained dogs are less likely to bite.
  • Keep your dog in control and on a leash when walking on the street or in the park.
  • Leave your sick dog home. Sick dogs a prone to biting because, just like you, they are cranky when they are sick.
  • Neuter your male dog. Unneutered male dogs are more often involved in bite incidents than neutered ones.
  • Supervise all children-dog interactions.
  • Teach your children how to safely interact with dogs.

Invest in Insurance
If, despite your best efforts, your dog bites a person, you may be fined for having a dangerous dog, in violation of a local ordinance for having a dog off leash or other violations. There is also the potential for the person bitten to bring a lawsuit against you. Check your homeowner’s or renter’s insurance policy to make sure it includes coverage for the family dog. According to the Insurance Information Institute, one third of all homeowner insurance claims paid in 2013 were for dog bite injuries. New York State had the highest average cost per claim, at $43,122.

Keep Rabies Vaccination Up to Date
Should your dog become involved in a bite incident, provide the injured party with a copy of your dog’s rabies vaccination certificate as soon as possible. Their physician will need to know this information when determining what treatments are necessary for the bite injury. If the injured party needs emergency medical care, the ER may be required to report the bite to the local health department. Officials from the health department will monitor your dog’s health and as long as the rabies vaccination is up to date, may put your dog under home quarantine for a specified period of time.

Teaching Children Safe Dog Interaction
Join us on May 30, 2015 from 10am-1pm for AMC’s annual PAW Day: Pet And Wellness fun at Carl Schurz Park on E. 84th Street and East End Avenue in Manhattan. This event is family friendly, including your furry friends! At PAW Day, specially trained dogs will be available for children to practice safe dog interactions. The event features a stuffed animal veterinary clinic, Clifford the Big Red Dog, face painting and a whole lot more.


A Living Legend Because of a PDA

May 6, 2015
Molly, a Ganaraskan and AMC Living Legend

Molly, a Ganaraskan and AMC Living Legend

Molly is a cute fluff ball of a Ganaraskan. Although her name sounds like she belongs in a Tolkien novel, the Ganaraskan is a modern dog breed, developed only a few decades ago in Canada near the Ganaraska River in Ontario. The originators of this breed set out to develop the ideal therapy dog from English Cocker, Bichon Frise, Poodle and Miniature Schnauzer stock. Molly is typical of the breed – curly coated, anxious to please and weighing just about 20 pounds. But Molly is anything but typical; she is a legend in her own time a survivor of a major cardiac procedure necessary to save her life.

An Early Beginning of a Legend
Molly’s story starts when she is just a young pup and is diagnosed with a heart murmur at ten weeks of age. An echocardiogram did not identify a cause for the murmur and since the murmur was not very loud, no treatment was prescribed. Two years later, Molly came to The Animal Medical Center for evaluation of a fractured tooth. Dr. Stephen Riback, one of The AMC’s dentists, heard the murmur and recommended an echocardiogram.

The “Heart” of the Problem
The echocardiogram, performed by one of The AMC’s board certified cardiologists, Dr. Dennis Trafny, revealed an enlarged heart and a 4mm (1/8 inch) wide abnormal blood vessel known as a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Normal before birth, the PDA typically closes shortly thereafter. In Molly, the PDA did not close, allowing blood to traverse between two major blood vessels, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. The abnormal blood flow caused the heart murmur. But the murmur was just a harbinger of a future, more serious problem – the potential risk of heart failure if the abnormal blood flow was not halted.

The first technique available to veterinary cardiologists for repairing PDA’s in dogs required a thoracic surgery to ligate the PDA vessel using suture material. The incision scar was the size of your hand on the dog’s chest. Now, veterinary cardiologists use fluoroscopy, a special video x-ray machine, to guide a special catheter with a disc occluder up through a blood vessel in the leg, into the heart and right to the site of the PDA. When the disc occluder was deployed on both sides of Molly’s PDA, it corrected the abnormal blood flow. All it took was an incision the size of your fingertip on the inside of her leg and a highly skilled team of AMC veterinarians and medical staff.

Screen Legend – A Movie of Blood Flow
The video clips of Molly’s procedure come from The AMC’s fluoroscopy machine. It is a special x-ray machine which makes a video x-ray of a procedure. In the first video clip, before the PDA was occluded, the rapidly moving black material is a special contrast agent administered intravenously to highlight the PDA. The contrast agent should all stay in the big blood vessel (aorta), but instead it circulates throughout the lungs and the blood vessels highlighted by the contrast agent represent blood vessels in the lungs.


In the second video clip, you can see the PDA has been closed off with a disc occluder. It blocks the blood flow through the PDA. You see the blood does not circulate abnormally through the lungs like in the first video.


Two weeks following surgery, Molly’s cardiac size decreased by 25% and she is doing well today. She is no longer at risk for developing heart failure and is expected to live a long, full life!

If you liked Molly’s story, you might want to hear other stories of medical triumphs at the 7th Annual Living Legends Luncheon on May 12th. Learn more about this event.


Canine Flu: An Update

April 29, 2015

Dog flu/canine influenzaFor the last few months, veterinarians and dog owners in the Chicago area and other Midwestern states have been faced with an outbreak of canine influenza. Over 1,100 dogs have been diagnosed with the virus and sadly, some have died. First identified in an outbreak of what was believed to be “kennel cough” in greyhounds, the canine influenza virus was initially described in 2005. Canine influenza virus is just one of the causes of “kennel cough” which is really a general term for canine upper respiratory tract infections.

The canine influenza virus reported in 2005 is an H3N8 strain of the virus which has been documented nationwide. The current Chicago outbreak is caused by an H3N2 virus, which is the virus circulating in Asian dogs. Exactly how the Asian strain came to the Windy City is not currently known. Canine influenza seems to be moving east and cases have now been confirmed in the state of Indiana. Just yesterday, dog flu was diagnosed in Iowa.

Dog to Dog Transmission
Canine flu is transmitted from dog to dog and dogs can transmit it prior to showing symptoms of the virus. That feature of the disease is probably responsible for its rapid transmission within a population. Inanimate objects, leashes, collars, bowls and bedding used by an infected dog could be a source of infection for other dogs coming in contact with those objects. Petting a sick dog and then petting a healthy dog can also spread the infection.

Clinical Signs of Canine Influenza
The clinical signs of canine influenza run the gamut of respiratory disease. Twenty percent of dogs infected with the virus will never show any signs, but still can infect other dogs. Most dogs develop what we might think of as a cold– sneezing, runny nose and a cough. Dogs with the flu feel out of sorts with a fever and a poor appetite. About ten percent of infected dogs will develop a serious complication of influenza – bacterial pneumonia.

What precautions should dog owners take?

  1. Avoid doggie day care, the boarding kennel, the dog park, obedience classes and any other areas where dogs congregate. The canine flu spreads most rapidly in situations where many dogs come in contact with each other or with infected dogs’ coughs and sneezes.
  2. Wash your hands well. The canine influenza virus can live on human hands for 12 hours, unless they are washed with soap and water.
  3. Talk to your veterinarian about the canine influenza vaccine. The available vaccine is for the typical H3N8 virus. Because the virus in this outbreak is H3N2, we don’t know if the flu vaccine will protect dogs against this new virus, but it is being recommended in the Chicago area. The canine flu vaccine is like the human flu vaccine; it lessens signs of flu and shortens their duration, but does not prevent the disease.
  4. If your dog contracts the flu, wash bedding, dishes, leashes and clothing which can transmit the virus for up to 24-48 hours after coming in contact with a sick dog.
  5. Keep your cat away from your sick dog since the H3N2 strain can be transmitted to cats. The H3N8 strain is not believed to infect cats.

Treatment of Allergies in Pets

April 15, 2015
AMC's dermatologist, Dr. Mark Macina, examines a patient

AMC’s dermatologist, Dr. Mark Macina, examines a patient

Spring officially arrived nearly three weeks ago, but the onset of allergy season may not arrive too soon this year, given our harsh winter. But once it warms up, pollen, dust mites, fleas, grass, weeds and mold will kick off allergy season in pets.

Clinical Signs of Allergies
Does your dog rub his face along the front of your sofa or scratch incessantly? Has your cat scratched all the fur off her head and made is scabby? Are you constantly putting in ear drops or giving antibiotics to treat skin infections? All these represent clinical signs of allergies in pets.

Control Parasites
One of the top causes of canine and feline allergic skin disease stems from an allergic reaction to flea saliva. A flea bites your dog or cat, setting off an allergic reaction. This disease presents a double-whammy to your pet: discomfort from fleas crawling all over its skin and the discomfort of being itchy. Fortunately, numerous options for control of fleas are available and your choice of product can be tailored to your pet’s exact needs.

Modify the Diet
Food allergies are typically an ongoing problem, not seasonal like pollen, grass or flea saliva allergies. Veterinarians think the allergen in food is the protein source contained in the diet, but it may be other ingredients as well. The standard method for determining if food is the cause of skin disease is a food elimination trial. Elimination diets contain a limited number of ingredients and protein sources not typically found in common pet food and not previously fed to your pet. Novel protein sources include bison, herring or rabbit. Some elimination diets avoid common carbohydrate sources and include potatoes or oats, rather than corn or soy. An elimination diet requires determination on the part of the pet owner, as the skin improves slowly in response to a diet change. Patience is required to tough out a month or more of strict diet control.

Administer Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy, a medical word for allergy shots, involves specialized testing to determine whether it is pollen, dust mites, fleas, grass, weeds or mold revving up your pet’s itch-scratch pathway. Once the cause of the allergy is determined, a custom allergy vaccine can be developed for your pet. You learn to give the injections at home one to two times per week. These injections contain minute amounts of the offending antigen (pollen, dust mites, fleas, grass, weeds or mold) which trains your pet’s immune system to be tolerant of these agents.

Quell the Immune System with Drugs
A variety of drugs can be used to turn off the allergic reaction underlying the itch-scratch cycle in your pet. The most well-known, but not necessarily the most effective in pets, is antihistamines. Steroids can be very effective and rapidly reduce the clinical signs of allergies, but have unpleasant side effects, such as increasing water drinking, urination and appetite, as well as increasing the risk of infection. Another effective drug for allergy management is cyclosporine, although cost is a concern. New to the market, oclacitinib, inhibits the cells initiating the itch-scratch cycle by attacking allergies at the cellular level.

With so many options to manage pet allergies, no pet should have their summer fun spoiled by constant itching and scratching. Watch The AMC’s Dr. Mark Macina talk about managing allergies in pets.


Flea and Tick Prevention: 2015 Update

April 8, 2015
Photo: Vetstreet.com

Photo: Vetstreet.com

When I started my career as a veterinarian, the options for flea and tick control were limited, smelly and messy. I dispensed cans of spray, bottles of dip, and cartons of powder, but hardly ever prescribed a flea collar. Back then, the collars were not that effective and some thought the only way a flea collar killed a flea was by squashing it when you put the collar on your pet. Thirty years later, the options for pet owners to prevent ectoparasite infestations are infinitely better and way more numerous.

Better flea and tick control has resulted in healthier pets. I used to routinely see dogs and cats crawling with fleas from head to toe. Many developed flea allergic dermatitis, often complicated by a superficial skin infection. While we still see allergies in pets, flea allergic dermatitis is much less common and pets are much more comfortable, thanks to these new products.

Top Spot Products
The big revolution in flea and tick prevention started when top spot products were introduced. These are the little tubes of liquid that come in multipacks for monthly application to the nape of your pet’s neck. The product then distributes throughout the haircoat and kills fleas and ticks when they come in contact with the medicine on your pet’s hair. They also come with stickers for your calendar or an app for your mobile device to remind you when to apply the medication. Many of the manufacturers of these products have videos on their website demonstrating proper application of the product.

Oral Flea and Tick Prevention
Oral products can be active against only fleas or prevent multiple species of ticks as well. Most oral products come as tasty chew treats and are administered monthly; although long lasting products are also available. Not all oral products start working instantly. If your pet has a flea infestation because you missed a dose, check with your veterinarian about a rapidly acting oral product for quick flea takedown.

Long Lasting Collars
Unlike the early flea collars, today’s models last for months at a time. Depending on which collar your veterinarian prescribes, modern flea collars may be active against a single species of tick or fleas and multiple species of ticks. If you choose a collar, check the label carefully as some collars may take a week to reach full strength on your pet.

Choosing What’s Right for Your Pet
When selecting from this array of products, consider the following criteria:

  1. Talk with your veterinarian about the types of parasites in your area. Selecting a product with a profile that fits your area’s parasite population is critical.
  2. Top spot products often repel as well as kill fleas and ticks. If you live in a geographic locale with high numbers of fleas and ticks, you might want this added protection.
  3. Certain collars and oral preventatives last for months at a time. If you are busy and forgetful, one of these products might be a good choice.
  4. Not all top spot preparations and collars are waterproof. If your dog is a swimmer, choose a waterproof product or consider an oral flea and tick preventative.
  5. If you have a puppy or kitten, make sure the product you select is safe for the newest family member. Some products are not labeled for pets < 6-12 weeks of age.
  6. Use dog products for dogs and cat products for cats. Never switch, or you may need a trip to the animal ER.

Clinical Research at The Animal Medical Center

April 1, 2015

veterinary researchOne part of The Animal Medical Center’s tripartite mission involves advancing the practice of veterinary medicine through research. Many types of research exist: scientific, historical, social science and economic are just a few examples. The AMC participates in a specific type of scientific investigation called clinical research.

Studying Healthcare
Clinical research asks and attempts to answer questions related to healthcare delivery, and in the case of The AMC, animal healthcare. At various times, the veterinarians at The AMC have studied the impact of new medications, treatment protocols, diagnostic tests and therapeutic devices on canine and feline patients. Clinical research is distinct from, but seeks to improve, clinical care.

Institutional Review Board
Research involving living patients, human or veterinary, happens only after an institutional review board studies and approves the research protocol. This process assures the safety of the patients involved in the project. The review board also evaluates the patient consent document. To ensure the pet’s family understands their family member is part of a research protocol, they must read and sign documents about the planned treatment’s risks and benefits. In any clinical study, a pet owner may withdraw their pet from the study at their discretion.

Abstract Presentation
Another component of conducting research is presentation of the findings to a group of your scientific peers. At The AMC, resident research projects are presented to the entire hospital community. The audience can ask questions and make suggestions to clarify or improve the interpretation of the results. At this year’s Resident Research Seminar, five residents presented their work to the AMC community. They addressed topics such as using MRI and CT scanning for dogs with prolapsed spinal discs, vitamin D levels in ICU patients, blood clotting abnormalities as a result of severe trauma, comparison of continuous infusion versus intermittent diuretic infusion for the treatment of heart failure, and iron supplementation in cats with cancer. The results from the studies help AMC veterinarians to improve patient care and when published, influence the care of pets everywhere.

Publish or Perish
The final step in any research project is to publish the results in a peer reviewed journal. Peer reviewed means just what it says. Expert veterinarians review the manuscript for bias in research methodology, statistical analysis and conclusions. They recommend changes to improve the final publication and once those changes are made, approve the final manuscript, which is ultimately published for all interested in the topic to read.

Recent Publications
Here are summaries of some recent AMC resident research project publications:


Blindness in Pets

March 25, 2015
Smiley

Smiley

Smiley, a blind Golden Retriever therapy dog and former puppy mill rescue, recently became an internet sensation. Born without eyes, Smiley bonded with a deaf Great Dane after he was rescued from the puppy mill. According to reports, the relationship drew Smiley out of his shell and turned him into a confident therapy dog, sharing his smile at schools, nursing homes and libraries.

Forms of Blindness
Smiley was born without eyes – medically known as ocular agenesis, but blindness in pets takes many forms. High blood pressure, especially in cats with kidney disease, causes blindness. The increased blood pressure causes vision loss from retinal detachment and intraocular hemorrhage. Chronic herpes infection in a cat’s eye can cause corneal ulcers that are painful, difficult to heal and which can lead to blindness. A lack of tear production or dry eye predisposes dogs to corneal ulcers and scarring, and if left untreated, blindness. Both dogs and cats develop glaucoma, a painful swelling of the eye. If the swelling cannot be controlled, glaucoma can rob pets of their vision.

AMC TO THE RESCUE Helps
Doc, a mixed breed puppy, had developed glaucoma, a painful increase of fluid inside the eyeball that damages or destroys vision. Doc came to see The AMC’s board certified ophthalmologist, Dr. Alexandra van der Woerdt, through a joint effort between AMC TO THE RESCUE and Doc’s rescue group, Louie’s Legacy. AMC TO THE RESCUE funds specialty care to rescued pets whose medical conditions form a barrier to their adoption, preventing them from finding a forever home.

Dr. van der Woerdt determined Doc’s vision could not be saved, and because his eyes were painful, she outlined three options to make him pain free. First, surgical enucleation, or total removal of the eye; second, chemical ablation, where a substance is placed into the eye to destroy the fluid-producing tissue, lowering the pressure inside the eye; and finally, placement of an intraocular prosthesis. This device maintains blinking eyeball shape, but removes the “insides” of the eye so fluid is no longer produced and the eye is no longer painful. Doc underwent surgical enucleation of both eyes.

New Family and a New Name
Doc is now Zach, the name bestowed by his new family who adopted him shortly after the enucleation surgery. A new name is fitting since Zach is a new dog because he no longer suffers from painful eyes. Zach’s new family says, “He is doing super well. He loves to wrestle at the dog park and can navigate around our house and neighborhood with ease. Most people don’t even notice that he is blind!”

AMC TO THE RESCUE is proud to have helped turn one more unadoptable rescue dog into a beloved family pet. For more information about this vital Community Fund, or to donate, please visit our website.


Erin Go Daugh!!! St. Patrick’s Day for Pets

March 12, 2015

St. Patrick's Day for PetsNew York City, and other cities are about to get green. Not green with envy or ecologically green, but St. Patrick’s Day green. Many of us will don green hats or a sweater with an embroidered shamrock emblazoned on the front. Pets wearing St. Patrick’s Day finery are adorable, but some of the other St. Paddy’s Day traditions can be downright dangerous for pets.

Green Beer and Irish Whiskey
For those hosting a St. Patrick’s Day party, monitor the coffee table and other low surfaces for unfinished alcoholic beverages. Your dog might decide to take a nip or two of these available beverages in honor of the Irish saint, but because dogs are smaller than we are and are not used to drinking alcohol, they can quickly develop alcohol poisoning.

Another tip to avoid a pet crisis during your St. Patrick’s Day party: give Fluffy and Fido their own party space away from your guests. Their own space will protect them against unwanted escape as your guests arrive or depart. But just to be safe, be sure your pets are wearing their collars and name tags under their St. Paddy’s Day garb.

Shamrock Plants
The shamrock, or white clover, is a plant traditionally associated with the Emerald Isle and St. Patrick. History suggests the Irish wore shamrocks on their clothing to honor St. Patrick on his feast day. Today, shamrock plants can be found in your neighborhood grocery store and brighten up window sills at this gloomy time of year. Shamrocks contain oxalate which, if the plant is eaten, is irritating to the intestinal tract. Pet familes should find decorations other than live shamrock plants for the St. Paddy’s holiday season.

Irish Soda Bread
Out of financial necessity, the Irish popularized soda bread. Irish soda bread uses inexpensive ingredients like flour, sour milk and a bit of sugar. Today this tasty, raisin loaded loaf appeals to everyone, including your dog. But keep your loaf away from your dog, since ingestion of even a few raisins or currants can permanently damage your dog’s kidneys.

Green Foil Wrapped Chocolate Shamrocks
Leprechauns often leave foil wrapped chocolate shamrocks as gifts in honor of the patron saint of Ireland. They intend for the chocolate to be eaten by humans. Dogs will happily consume the chocolate and the foil wrapping, leading to an upset stomach. If a large number of these chocolate treats are consumed, dogs can become excitable and develop a very elevated heart rate. Find some shamrock shaped dog biscuits if you are looking for a special dog treat.

If you are wearin’ the green be safe and have a happy St. Patrick’s Day!


Bladder Stones: Now You See Them, Now You Don’t

March 4, 2015

The two x-rays seen below are from the same canine patient, taken one month apart. The one on the left shows two bladder stones. On the right you can see the stones are no longer present in the bladder. How did this magic happen? Surgery? Laser therapy? Antibiotics? Food? Magic wand?

canine bladder stones

Canine x-rays. Left image indicates 2 bladder stones. (Click to enlarge.)

Surgery?
Nope. Surgery may be the fastest and most common treatment for bladder stones, but for this lucky duck dog surgery was not necessary. Bladder surgery is performed under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen near the back legs and finds the bladder just inside the body wall. Because the bladder is a hollow organ, it will collapse when the surgeon makes an incision in the bladder wall. Special sutures are placed in the bladder to hold it up and keep it open while the stones are scooped out of the bladder with a bladder stone spoon.

Bladder spoons

Bladder spoons (click to enlarge)

PCCL?
Huh? This acronym stands for per cutaneous cystolithotomy. Using laparoscopy equipment, a pinhole incision is made in the bladder. A small camera is threaded into the bladder and its magnifying properties are used to visualize the tiniest stones. Using this non-invasive method, stones are busted up using the laser and then easily removed.

Laser therapy?
Guess again. For dogs of the right size with not too many stones, non-invasive bladder stone removal is possible. Stones can be fragmented using a special laser which is passed up the urethra and into the bladder. Once the stones are broken into small enough pieces, they are either flushed out of the bladder or removed with a special stone-removing basket which is passed up the urethra and into the bladder to gather up the stone fragments.

Antibiotics?
Yes, but only in part. I can hear you saying, “Wait a minute, this makes no sense. Stones are hard chunks of mineral. Antibiotics treat bacterial infections, they do not dissolve stone.” But, this dog’s urinalysis showed an infection in addition to the stones. The infection played a role in the development of the stones and without treating the infection, the stones will not disappear.

Diet?
Stones form in the bladder as a sequel to infection and also because there are too many minerals in the urine. Drinking more water dilutes the minerals and helps dissolve the stones. Taking advantage of that information, a diet was formulated to promote water drinking in dogs fed the special stone dissolving diet. The diet is also low in magnesium and phosphorus, the building blocks of a type of bladder stone called struvite. This diet does not work in every type of bladder stone, only the struvite ones. Antibiotics are necessary since as the stone dissolves, it releases bacteria, and thus the dog needs antibiotics until the stones are completely gone. Antibiotics alone will not dissolve the stone and diet won’t work unless the infection is controlled, so the correct answer for the magical disappearance of the bladder stones in this dog is diet AND antibiotics.

Signs of bladder stones
Dogs with bladder stones urinate more frequently than is normal, have accidents in the house and blood in their urine. If you see any signs like this, be sure to have your dog evaluated immediately by your veterinarian. View a prior blog post on bladder stones to see diagnostic images of stones.


Pumps and Valves: February is American Heart Month <3

February 25, 2015

heart monthIn February, we celebrate Valentine’s Day with flowers and candy hearts. February also focuses on another type of heart – the one beating inside your chest! This is American Heart Month, raising awareness of heart disease. Both dogs and cats get heart disease, but the common type in each species is different. Cats’ hearts have pump problems and dogs’ hearts have valve problems. Although the problems are different, the outcome for both pump and valve problems is heart failure, or inadequate delivery of blood throughout the body for normal function to continue.

Poor pumping = heart disease in cats ❤
The heart is a sophisticated muscle, but it still performs the basic muscle function – contract and relax. When the heart relaxes, the pumping chambers fill. The next muscular contraction expels the blood from the heart into the blood vessels. When the heart muscle is diseased, it can do one of two things – get thicker or thinner. Both are bad. A thick heart pumps less blood with each beat since the thick muscle occupies space inside the heart where the blood to be pumped normally collects. When the heart is thin, the muscles are weak and do not adequately pump blood. Thick or thin, neither heart pumps blood well.

Leaky valves = heart disease in dogs ❤
A normal dog heart consists of four chambers, and the flow of blood between chambers is controlled by little valves. Normal valves remind me of alabaster: translucent and white, but unlike alabaster, they are flexible. Especially in small dogs, the valves degenerate as a dog ages, becoming thick and lumpy and inflexible. The distortion of their shape prevents them from closing normally. Abnormal valves leak and blood is not pumped efficiently through the rest of the heart and blood vessels. Over time, the portion of blood leaking out of the heart chambers increases and blood pumped to vital organs decreases.

Congestive heart failure ❤
Even though the underlying heart problem in dogs and cats is different, the result is often the same. Poor pumping in cats and leaky valves in dogs can lead to congestive heart failure. These disparate problems both decrease the blood flow to vital organs, such as the kidneys. To compensate, the kidneys retain fluid and when the fluid reaches a critical level, it floods into the lungs, causing pulmonary edema. Acute congestive heart failure is a common reason for admission to the hospital from The Animal Medical Center’s ER. Congestive heart failure can be treated with medications to remove fluid, help the heart pump more vigorously and dilate the blood vessels, allowing them to hold more fluid.

Keeping your pet’s heart healthy ❤
I know you want to keep your pet out of the animal ER, so here are some tips for being heart healthy:

  • Keep your pet at an ideal body weight. Obesity increases stress on the heart and it has other negative effects on health as well.
  • Exercise daily with your pet. Folks who walk their dog daily have better heart health themselves.
  • Ask your primary care veterinarian if a consultation with a board certified cardiologist could benefit your pet. Changes in heart valves and muscles cannot typically be reversed; new medications can prolong good quality of life in both dogs and cats with heart disease.

The 139th Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show: Old and New

February 11, 2015
Coton de Tulear

Coton de Tulear | Photo: AKC

This coming weekend begins the multi-day canine spectacular known as the Westminster Kennel Club (WKC) Dog Show. The annual event is the second oldest continuous sporting event in the United States, ranking number two to the Kentucky Derby, one year its senior. Dog lovers can spend Valentine’s Day watching the second annual Master’s Agility Competition at Westminster or meeting over 100 different purebred dogs at the AKC Meet the Breeds show. The WKC Show takes place Monday and Tuesday, February 16 and 17. Daytime events are at Piers 92 and 94 (711 12th Avenue at 55th Street). The evening events, Best of Group and Best in Show, can be seen at Madison Square Garden where the Show has been held for 139 years.

Every Year Beau-tee-ful Dogs!
Nothing new here. The WKC Show will feature nearly 3,000 gorgeous dogs, at least one dog representing each of the American Kennel Club’s (AKC) 184 registered breeds. Leading the pack in terms of numbers are America’s family dogs, the Golden Retriever with 58 entries and Labrador Retrievers with 56. The breed represented by the fewest number of entrants is the Norwegian Lundehund with one ‘lone wolf’ entrant. These truly are rare dogs; I checked The Animal Medical Center’s (AMC) 57,638 dog registrations and found only three Norwegian Lundehunds. This Norse breed features six toes on each foot and a neck so flexible, the top of their head can touch their back, both advantageous adaptations for hunting puffins on the icy slopes of Norway. Like most Artic breeds, they have a thick coat to help them withstand frigid temperatures.

New Breeds at the Show
The list of 184 AKC breeds includes two breeds newly recognized by the American Kennel Club that will be seen at Westminster for the first time: the Coton de Tulear in the Non-Sporting Group and the Wirehaired Vizsla in the Sporting Group. The veterinarians at The AMC know the Coton well as they are popular pets in NYC and we have 145 of them as patients. Since the Wirehaired Vizsla was not imported to the United States until the 1970s, they are not well known. Seeing the Wirehaired Vizslas at the WKC Show will be a special treat since none of these Hungarian hunting dogs have been seen as patients at The AMC.

New Arrivals for 2016
We already know that next year there will be four new breeds ready for participation in the 2016 WKC Show: the Spanish Water Dog, the Cirneco dell’Etna, the Bergamasco and the Boerboel. Except for the Spanish Water Dog, the list appears to be more like a spelling bee challenge than names of dogs!

As Always, The AMC Will Be There
The AMC’s veterinarians will be in attendance for emergency care at both the Piers and the Garden from Saturday until the 2015 Best in Show is named. The AMC will also have an information booth at Meet the Breeds on Saturday (Booth #131 Pier 92) and at the WKC Show on Monday and Tuesday (#44 Pier 94). Please stop by and say hello.


Hound’s Tooth and Cat’s Teeth: A Photo Blog in Honor of National Pet Dental Health Month

February 4, 2015

Baby, It’s Cold Outside: Winter Tips for Pet Owners

January 21, 2015

Five Tips for Keeping Your Pet’s Weight Loss Resolution

January 7, 2015

Since New Year’s has passed, I suspect many pet families are hard at work on their list of resolutions. Weight loss is a common human New Year’s resolution and since estimates of overweight and obese pets range from 25-40%, I suspect it is on the list of many pet families as well. If you have a Labrador Retriever, Beagle, Cocker Spaniel, Basset Hound, Dachshund or Sheltie, breeds at high risk for obesity, weight loss is probably perpetually on your to do list.

Here are my tips to help your pet keep its resolve when it comes to weight loss:

  1. Many pet owners don’t recognize chubbiness in their favorite furry friend. Have your veterinarian assess your pet’s body condition score. This will help determine if weight loss is necessary.

    weight loss for pets

    Pet Body Condition Score Chart

  2. Using your pet’s body condition score, decide how much weight loss is necessary and have your veterinarian calculate the number of calories required daily to attain that weight. Ask if a weight loss food would be nutritionally better than simply cutting back on the current daily portion.
  3. Determine how many calories are in each can, bag or box of your pet’s food and calculate exactly how many ounces, grams or portions of a can are required to meet your pet’s daily calorie allotment. Then feed that number of calories – no more, no less.
  4. Limit treats to 10% of the calculated daily calorie allotment AND include treats in the daily calorie total. Treats can look deceptively calorie free and help to pack on the pounds. A small Milk Bone biscuit contains 20 calories and a Bully Stix has up to 22 calories per inch. A six inch stick could be nearly 25% of your 30 pound dog’s calorie allotment for the day.
  5. Keep your pet active. Throw a ball. Use the laser pointer with your cat. Exercise with your pet. Scientific research has shown exercising your dog is good for those on both ends of the leash.

Here are more weight loss suggestions for pets.

Let’s clink our glasses of no calorie seltzer water to a healthy, happy and thinner 2015 for the whole family!


Veterinary Year in Review: 2014

December 31, 2014

Holiday Gifts for Pets

December 3, 2014

Sharing Turkey Day Dinner with Your Pets

November 26, 2014

Happy ThanksgivingThanksgiving is all about food and family. Many of us consider our pets family members and want to include them in the holiday celebration, but menu selection for pets can be tricky. For example, dogs love chocolate, but it will cause vomiting, diarrhea and hyperactivity if Fido indulges his passion with a few foil wrapped chocolate turkeys. Your cat may find the raw turkey trimmings sitting on the counter a tasty treat. Raw poultry can be teeming with organisms such Salmonella or E. coli and give Fluffy a nasty case of food poisoning. So here are simple suggestions for taking food from your holiday table and creating a healthy and safe buffet for the family pets. More difficult will be figuring out if seating Fido next to Grandpa and Fluffy next to Uncle Ray will provoke a family fracas!

Doggie dishes
When choosing Thanksgiving food for your dog’s dish, stay away from high fat dishes, such as gravy or sausage stuffing, which can provoke an episode of painful pancreatitis. Steer clear of raisins and grapes, whether in a fruit salad or stuffing, as these delicious fruits can cause serious kidney problems. A spoonful each of nice white meat turkey, sweet potatoes or mashed potatoes minus the butter, sour cream, nuts, and marshmallows would be safe turkey day fare for your dog. Fruit often appeals to dogs, and while recreating grandma’s apple crumb pie, save a couple of apple slices for your dog.

Reptile recipes
If you have a vegetarian reptile, such as an iguana, bearded dragon or a tortoise, the Thanksgiving side dishes provide an opportunity to share the bounty of the season.  Winter greens such as collards and mustard greens make a tasty holiday treat. While you’re setting aside the greens for your special scaled friend, save some raw squash, yams and even a few fresh or boiled cranberries to create a colorful and healthy reptile dinner. In addition to the vegetables and fruit, your turtles might like a bit of white or dark meat turkey added to their plate.

Kitty cuisine
Because cats think of you as their servant, dishing up what you believe to be a special holiday meal without asking their permission may result in rejection of your best culinary efforts. Perhaps just serve up the turkey flavor of your cat’s favorite canned cat food and call it a day in the kitchen! If you must cook for your kitty, consider simmering the giblets from the turkey until they are cooked through. Once they are cooled, mince them finely for a feline Thanksgiving Day indulgence.

Pocket pet provisions
If you have a small mammal, such as a rabbit or guinea pig, save some salad fixings, like lettuce leaves and carrot pieces, to make Thanksgiving extra special. While you are making the pie, save a small piece of apple before it is mixed with sugar and cinnamon as a rabbit dessert. The family ferret can feast on small bits of plain turkey meat without gravy or seasonings.

Bird buffet
Before you add the butter, sugar or marshmallows to the steamed or boiled sweet potatoes, save a small portion for your bird’s Thanksgiving dinner. If you garnish your vegetable dishes with pecans, walnuts or slivered almonds, they too can be added to your bird’s holiday fare. Selections from the vegetable side dishes, such as carrot pieces, green beans and Brussels sprouts, make a tasty and healthy addition to your bird’s plate, but be sure to set them aside before butter or salt is added!

The Animal Medical Center wishes a happy Thanksgiving to all! “Bone” Appétit.


Keeping Your Senior Pet Healthy

November 19, 2014

senior petsSince November is National Adopt a Senior Pet Month, this image posted on Twitter by @PetLiving caught my eye. Adopting a grey muzzle pet bypasses the need to housebreak, train and socialize your pet, all necessary tasks when you adopt a puppy or kitten. The text accompanying this photo highlights just two of the health issues, loss of vision and hearing, that you might expect when you adopt a senior pet.

Do you have a senior pet?
A dog or cat is considered a “senior” when he or she is in the last 25 percent of the breed’s expected lifespan. So a Great Dane with a life expectancy of 8 years might be a senior at 6 years. Conversely, a miniature poodle with an expected lifespan of 15 years might not be a senior until 11 or 12 years. The lifespan of cats remains more consistent across breeds than in dogs, and cats over 10 years of age are considered seniors.

Keeping your senior cat healthy
Essential to keeping your senior cat healthy are regular preventive care visits to the veterinarian. Over the past 10 or so years, the frequency feline patients see their veterinarian has dropped to less than one time per year. Without routine care, small problems become big ones. Take for example feline teeth. In a British study of over 140,000 cats, nearly 15 percent suffered from periodontal disease.

Periodontal disease is a painful condition which can be nipped in the bud by routine dental prophylaxis. Wait too long to have your cat’s teeth treated and the need for multiple extractions increases. Preventive health care visits allow your cat’s veterinarian to perform blood tests which can reveal kidney disease at a time when dietary therapy can be effective. Routine visits to your cat’s veterinarian also help to keep tabs on your cat’s weight. Overweight cats have a greater risk of developing diabetes and bladder problems.

Keeping your senior dog healthy
Three critical factors in keeping your senior dog healthy are preventing obesity, promoting mobility and monitoring for cancer.  A multi-year study of Labrador retrievers demonstrated the negative impact of obesity on longevity. Dogs fed a restricted amount of food lived nearly two years longer than dogs fed a higher number of calories.

Keeping your senior dog in lean body condition is directly tied to maintaining mobility. Overweight senior dogs with creaky joints have a much more difficult time getting around than their slimmer counterparts. More time sitting on the sofa translates to a decline in muscle strength and turns into a dog that can barely walk. During your twice yearly senior pet checkup, your veterinarian has in her pharmacy a variety of medications to keep your senior dog moving comfortably. Experts estimate that almost 50 percent of all dogs over the age of 10 will develop cancer, making this a significant problem in the senior dog. You can easily monitor for skin cancers by simply doing a through belly rub and petting your dog from nose to tail. If you find any lumps or bumps, bring them to the attention of your veterinarian immediately.

Better medical treatment means pets can live longer and healthier than ever before. Don’t assume your senior pet is just slowing down as a normal part of aging. Slowing down could indicate your pet is developing a disease. That’s why veterinarians recommend your senior pet see them twice yearly. Make an appointment for your senior pet today!


NYC Rat Patrol Finds Plethora of Disease: Is Your Pet at Risk?

October 22, 2014

ratHistorians believe rats arrived in the new world as stowaways on the sailing ships of explorers like Christopher Columbus.  These “colonist” rats brought diseases such a plague and typhus. A recently published study of rats in New York City “rats” on the veritable Noah’s Ark of organisms infecting these ubiquitous pests.

Scientists ratting on the rat
One hundred and thirty three NYC rats were collected for study. Samples of urine, feces and blood obtained from these rats were tested for the genetic material of bacteria, viruses and protozoa. For those organisms like E. coli, known to infect rats, humans and pets, very specific tests were performed to identify these pathogens. Several intestinal pathogens were found in the rats, in addition to E. coli, Clostridium and  Salmonella.

Another concerning, but not surprising bacteria found in the rats was LeptospiraLeptospira bacteria spreads to humans and dogs through the urine of infected rats. At The Animal Medical Center, we see a couple of canine patients a year with severe, life-threatening kidney failure from Ieptospirosis.

What wasn’t found
Nearly as interesting as the list of organisms that were identified, was the list of organisms not identified. One of the most deadly diseases carried by rats and having the ability to infect people and their pets is the plague. Reassuringly, not a single rat was infected with the plague causing bug, Yersinia pestis. Ditto for Listeria, a food borne illness, and Toxoplasma, a serious disease in pregnant women.

Some surprises
The Seoul hantavirus was identified in some of the study rats. This is a different version of the virus than the one carried by mice that caused the hantavirus outbreak in Yosemite National Park a couple of years ago. According to the recently published paper, the Seoul hantavirus has been identified in rats residing in other urban areas, but this is the first documented report of this virus in the Big Apple. Hantavirus appears to be a disease not spread to pets, and only to humans in rare cases.

The scientists screened the rat samples for previously unidentified viruses and found the genetic material of 18 new viral species. Most of these novel viruses are related to known viruses, but their clinical significance remains to be elucidated.

Why study rats?
Some might question why the despised rat is studied. Rat health and disease have important implications for our health and the health of our pets. In urban areas, rats live in close proximity to us, our pets and our food. According to the Centers for Disease Control, 75% of emerging diseases start in animals, so our future health and that of our pets may lie in the study of creatures like the rat.


Do We Really Have to Worry About Ebola in Dogs?

October 15, 2014
Excalibur with his mom

Excalibur with his mom

With the first death in the United States from Ebola virus last week and the first known transmissions of Ebola virus outside of Africa occurring in Spain and here at home in Texas, Americans are rightfully nervous about this deadly virus spreading. For those of us who love pets, the euthanasia of Excalibur, a Spanish dog exposed to Ebola virus by his infected owner, was another heartbreaking chapter in the Ebola saga. Not only was this healthcare worker infected with a lethal virus, her beloved dog is dead too. So far the news out of Dallas, where the newest American Ebola victim has exposed her dog to Ebola virus, is that this dog will live.

How did we get to this point?
In West Africa, the Ebola virus has been thought to spread as a result of handling bush meat – wild animals hunted for food – and through contact with infected bats. West African dogs are not fed, but scavenge for food in and around their villages. This feeding practice theoretically puts them at risk for exposure to Ebola virus though consumption of scavenged bush meat. The possibility of Ebola virus exposure in dogs consuming bush meat prompted scientists to study the blood of dogs in regions of West Africa affected by the 2001-02 Ebola outbreak. They also studied dogs in West African areas spared by the 2001-02 Ebola outbreak, as well as some dogs in France. The results of that study suggests dogs in West Africa living in villages affected by Ebola virus have been exposed to the virus, but do not seem to show clinical signs of illness. A couple of French dogs also tested positive for exposure, which was perplexing since exposure of these dogs to Ebola virus seems very unlikely. A few dogs were tested for the presence of the virus, but no virus was identified.

How much evidence is there for Ebola in dogs?
In response to questions at a press conference on Tuesday [October 7, 2014], before Excalibur was euthanized, CDC Director Tom Frieden said, “There is one article in the medical literature that discusses the presence of antibodies to Ebola in dogs. Whether that was an accurate test and whether that was relevant we do not know. We have not identified this as a means of transmission,” Frieden added, “although scientists do know that Ebola can infect mammals and the virus can spread that way.”

Was Excalibur’s euthanasia justified?
While I can understand Spanish public health officials’ goal of preventing any additional cases of Ebola virus infection in humans by euthanizing Excalibur, the scientist in me sees a lost opportunity. If public health officials could have found a way to quarantine Excalibur and monitor his health, much could have been learned. The currently available studies tested the blood of dogs for antibodies against the Ebola virus, but the actual virus has not been identified. The presence of antibodies against any infectious agent, Ebola virus included, tells us the patient was exposed to that organism. It does not tell us if the animal carries the virus, if the animal will get sick and, most importantly, if the animal can transmit the virus to another animal or human. Much is lacking in research about dogs and Ebola virus, especially identifying the actual virus in the bloodstream and identifying how or if dogs shed the virus. Fortunately, scientific minds have prevailed in Dallas and we must all hope this dog will provide vital information about Ebola virus.

Now what?
Keep in mind exposure of your favorite Fido or Fifi to Ebola virus is highly unlikely since you serve up nutritious and safe dog food and not bush meat. We also are not in the midst of an Ebola epidemic in the United States and the probability of your dog being exposed to Ebola virus is currently nil. But the sad story of Excalibur and his owner are a stark reminder that many diseases can pass readily between pets and their people; among them fluringworm and Salmonella.

Whenever you are sick, quarantine yourself from the rest of your family, pets included, to prevent transmission of your illness to others. Cover your coughs and sneezes and wash your hands frequently to protect all other members of your family. If you are worried about your pet’s health, seek the advice of your best pet health resource – your family veterinarian.


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